The following website and resources were prepared by the University of Michigan Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine and most recently updated November 2016. The resources are designed, both evidence-based and according to expert opinion, to serve as general guideline for perioperative opioid management in elective surgery; patients, however, must be treated on a individual basis. The resource bank should be used only by medical professionals as a reference; it does not supersede clinical judgement and medical training.

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